# The scientific Study of Human Populations

The scientific Study of Human Populations
The scientific Study of Human Populations
122. The scientific study of human populations is called demography.
Demography focuses on how the population is structured, the size,
and stages of development. One of these factors is the number of
individuals per unit area. This is defined as
(A) density-dependent factors
(B) carrying capacity
(C) renewable resources
(D) population density
6543210 12345 6
Population (in millions)
Philippines: 2,000
Male Female
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base
Figure 3.7
123. According to the age structure diagram in Figure 3.7, the population
of this country is most likely
(A) growing slowly
(B) growing rapidly
(C) declining slowly
(D) declining rapidly
The scientific Study of Human Populations
124. Which factors are found on an age structure pyramid?
(A) age and gender
(B) age and ethnicity
(C) ethnicity and gender
(D) ethnicity and illnesses
Populations ❮ 61
20 16 12 840 4 8 12 16 20
Male Female
Population (in millions)
Figure 3.8
125. The population pyramid in Figure 3.8 most likely corresponds to
which country’s demographics?
(A) Japan
(C) Nigeria
(D) Germany
126. An equation to estimate a human population’s ecological impact
uses the variables I (total impact), P (population size), A (population
affluence), and T (population technology level). Using that
equation, if P and A both double compared to a previous situation
but T remains the same, what happens to I?
(A) I drops to zero.
(B) I drops to half its previous value.
(C) I remains the same value.
(D) I increases to four times its previous value.
62 ❯ 500 AP Environmental Science Questions to Know by Test Day
127. A total fertility rate of 2.1 represents the average number of children
born per woman at which a population stays the same from one
generation to the next without migration. This is also defined as
(A) ultimate fertility rate
(B) total fertility rate
(C) replacement level fertility rate
(D) general fertility rate
128. Which country has the highest fertility rate in the world
(as of 2019)?
(A) Niger
(B) China
(C) Singapore
(D) Japan
129. This term describes the number of years an individual is expected to
live at the time it is born:
(A) life span
(B) fecundity
(C) fertility
(D) life expectancy
The scientific Study of Human Populations
Populations ❮ 63
Country X Age Structure
80
0–4
600 500 400 300 200 100
5–9
10–14
15–19
20–24
25–29
30–34
35–39
40–44
45–49
Age 50–54
55–59
60–64
65–69
70–74
75–79
Country Y Age Structure
0 50 100 150
Thousands of people
200 250 300
Figure 3.9
Questions 130–135 refer to the two age-structure graphs in Figure 3.9.
Each represents the number of people of different age-groups living in a
country at the same time.
130. Using only these graphs, it’s possible to deduce that compared to
Country Y, Country X currently has a higher
(A) emigration rate
(B) immigration rate
(C) birthrate
(D) intrinsic rate of increase
131. If Country Y is a typical developed nation, in 10 to 20 years it will
begin suffering from
(A) a reduced tax base
(B) a high birthrate
(C) high population density
(D) low emigration
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