The Great Depression and the Second World War

The Great Depression and the Second World War
The Great Depression and the Second World War
415. At the start of the Great Depression, Black Tuesday occurred when
(A) investors began to buy large numbers of stocks on margin
(B) bankers responded to Black Th ursday by off ering loan and mortgage
(C) President Hoover declared a national bank holiday to stabilize the
(D) investors raced to sell their stock holdings
(E) the Federal Reserve moved off the gold standard
416. Th e Dust Bowl of the Great Depression occurred because
(A) the region was hit with heavy rains and tornadoes
(B) farmers could no longer aff ord to plant their fi elds
(C) intense agriculture had depleted the topsoil
(D) farmers lacked modern irrigation capabilities
(E) increased crop prices led to severe overproduction
The Great Depression and the Second World War
417. African-Americans during the Depression often experienced
(A) access to low-paying industrial jobs once available only to whites
(B) increased discrimination in employment and in relief programs
(C) a migration from the North back to southern farms
(D) greatly improved civil rights and opportunities
(E) the end of many of the Jim Crow laws in the South
418. When faced with the stock market crash and the start of the Depression,
Hoover supported
(A) government defi cit spending to help bring relief
(B) lowering tariff s to revive international trade
(C) creating federal relief programs for the average worker
(D) encouraging voluntary reforms within private businesses
(E) declaring a bank holiday to stabilize the market
106 ❯ 500 AP U.S. History Questions to Know by Test Day
419. Th e main goal of the Bonus Army at the start of the Depression was to
(A) allow veterans to receive their promised army pensions early
(B) distribute food aid to the multitude of people suff ering from
(C) protest the socialist undertones of the New Deal
(D) provide federal aid to farmers who had lost their farms
(E) support the Norris–La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act to protect unions
420. Th e main purpose of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation was to
(A) provide low-cost mortgages to homeowners facing foreclosure
(B) provide government credit to secure failing banks
(C) raise farm prices by encouraging farmers to reduce output
(D) provide work relief for the unemployed through public projects
(E) provide old-age pensions and unemployment benefi ts
The Great Depression and the Second World War
421. How did Presidents Hoover and Roosevelt diff er in their attempts to
respond to the Great Depression?
(A) While Hoover felt that aid should be supplied directly to the people,
Roosevelt felt that government should only try to stabilize the
corporations and banks.
(B) While Roosevelt felt that aid should be supplied directly to the
people, Hoover felt that government should only try to stabilize the
corporations and banks.
(C) Hoover’s reforms focused on providing aid to farmers, while
Roosevelt focused on industrial workers.
(D) Hoover supported the nationalization of banks, while Roosevelt
called for the redistribution of wealth through taxation.
(E) Roosevelt believed that the Depression should be corrected by
voluntary self-regulation in business, while Hoover advocated heavy
government regulation.
422. What is the practice of buying on margin?
(A) Purchasing stocks without any prior knowledge of the company
(B) Using bank loans to purchase stocks
(C) Pooling money with a group of investors to buy stock
(D) Buying stocks when they are low and selling them when they are high
(E) Purchasing consumer goods using an installment plan
The Great Depression and the Second World War ❮ 107
423. Which of the following New Deal agencies was created to assist businesses
most directly?
(A) Civilian Conservation Corps
(B) Home Owners’ Loan Corporation
(C) National Recovery Administration
(D) Tennessee Valley Authority
(E) Works Progress Administration
424. What was Franklin Roosevelt’s “Brain Trust”?
(A) Th e heads of Roosevelt’s executive agencies
(B) A collection of intellectuals who served as unoffi cial advisers
(C) Th e appointed heads of the agencies created under the New Deal
(D) Th ose who opposed Roosevelt’s New Deal policies
(E) Students who attended colleges with New Deal grants
425. How did the Second New Deal diff er from the First New Deal during the
(A) It contained a greater number of social welfare benefi ts.
(B) Unlike the First New Deal, it focused primarily on tax laws that
benefi ted the rich.
(C) It off ered stricter controls over labor unions and less regulation of
(D) It repealed most of the acts passed under the First New Deal.
(E) Unlike the First New Deal, its primary focus was on balancing the
426. Huey Long and Upton Sinclair criticized the New Deal on the grounds
(A) it was moving the country too far in the direction of socialism
(B) shifting the tax burden onto the wealthy was unfair
(C) they disagreed with tighter government regulations on private banks
(D) they disagreed with the notion of social security
(E) they believed the reforms did not go far enough to redistribute wealth
427. What did economist John Maynard Keynes say was necessary to restart the
economy during the Depression?
(A) Using government spending to increase consumer demand for goods
(B) Cutting taxes on businesses and investors so they could grow
(C) Adopting bimetallism to provide relief to farmers
(D) Establishing greater protection for organized labor
(E) Maintaining a strict policy of laissez-faire and letting the economy
recover naturally

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