The Case Against Theism Discussion

The Case Against Theism Discussion
The Case Against Theism Discussion
1. The dilemma entailed by the question “Does God have reasons for
prohibiting certain actions and recommending others?” is known as
(A) the prisoner’s dilemma
(B) Sophie’s choice
(C) Pascal’s wager
(D) Euthyphro’s dilemma
(E) the problem of evil
2. Kant’s famous critique of the ontological argument for the existence
of God argues that .
(A) there is no such thing as a posteriori, analytic knowledge
(B) existence is not a predicate
(C) God’s existence cannot depend on a definition
(D) one could prove the existence of a perfect island with a similar
(E) no one has ever seen God
92 ❯ McGraw-Hill’s 500 Philosophy Questions
3. Out of the following options, which makes the most sense as a criticism
of the cosmological argument for the existence of God?
(A) If God created the universe, God must have created evil as well.
(B) There are other, better explanations for the appearance of order
in the universe.
(C) Existence is not a predicate.
(D) There is no established, commonly accepted reason to equate
“cause of the universe” with a supernatural person.
(E) Religious language should not be understood literally.
The Case Against Theism Discussion
4. The 19th-century existentialist philosopher famously
has one of the characters in his books exclaim, “God is dead.”
(A) Søren Kierkegaard
(B) G. W. F. Hegel
(C) Friedrich Nietzsche
(D) Jean-Paul Sartre
(E) Ludwig Feuerbach
5. Which of the following makes the most sense as a criticism of the
argument from design?
(A) There have always existed supernatural explanations of mysterious
(B) The big bang theory shows that the universe is not infinitely old.
(C) Human beings emerging from matter by chance is just as unlikely
as a disassembled Boeing 747 being reassembled by a hurricane.
(D) The theory of evolution by natural selection makes the hypothesis
of a supernatural designer unnecessary.
(E) It is illegal to teach creationism in public schools.
6. The problem of evil is primarily concerned with the apparent tension
between .
(A) theism and atheism
(B) natural evil and moral evil
(C) suffering and the existence of God
(D) God’s knowledge of our future deeds and free will
(E) the Old Testament concept of God and the New Testament concept
of God
Philosophy of Religion ❮ 93
7. Some critics of the teleological argument for the existence of God have
pointed out that .
(A) God could have created a different universe altogether
(B) complexity or functionality does not necessarily entail design
(C) the teleological argument does not show that God’s existence
is compatible with suffering
(D) the universe might always have existed
(E) existence is not a property
8. Which of the following is NOT part of a typical criticism of the
cosmological argument for the existence of God?
(A) The universe might be eternal.
(B) There was no time before the big bang.
(C) The argument does not show us why God should be unique
in not requiring a cause.
(D) The universe came into being a finite amount of time ago.
(E) If every object’s existence is individually explainable, there is no need
to explain the existence of all the objects together.
9. Which of the following makes the most sense as a critical reply to the
claim that moral evil is compatible with God’s goodness because moral
evil is the result of human free will?
(A) Moral evil is not the result of human free will.
(B) God, being omnipotent, could have created a universe in which
human beings always freely chose good over evil.
(C) Demons may be responsible for natural evils like earthquakes
and tsunamis.
(D) God, being both omnibenevolent and omnipresent, necessarily
cancels out all evil.
(E) Natural evil is not the result of human free will.
The Case Against Theism Discussion
10. According to the argument from nonbelief, .
(A) God is unlikely to exist, since many people do not believe God to
(B) those who do not believe in God intentionally disbelieve something
they know to be true
(C) if atheists do not believe in God, they must not believe in anything
(D) nonbelief in God does not require a justification
(E) if God exists, we would not expect there to be reasonable
nonbelievers and yet reasonable nonbelievers exist
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