Poverty and Affluence Discussion Assignment

Poverty and Affluence Discussion Assignment
Poverty and Affluence Discussion Assignment
Poverty and Affluence
1. Who is the author of “Famine, Affluence, and Morality,” the noteworthy
1971 article that argued that we have an obligation to donate much more
money to charity than we typically think is appropriate?
(A) John Kekes
(B) Bertrand Russell
(C) Peter Singer
(D) Thomas Nagel
(E) Richard Rorty
2. Which of the following is a common objection to typical utilitarian views
on charity?
(A) Donating money does not necessarily increase overall happiness.
(B) Utilitarianism entails an unrealistically high moral demand with
regard to our obligations to donate to charities.
(C) It is impossible to calculate whether the overall balance between
well-being and misery would be higher on account of charity
(D) Utilitarianism does not always make the necessary distinction
between happiness and deserved happiness.
(E) Utilitarianism falsely implies that donating to charity is wrong.
Applied Ethics ❮ 49
Poverty and Affluence Discussion Assignment
3. The notion of beneficence plays an important role in applied ethics.
Which of the following is an apt definition for this notion?
(A) The common characteristic of all actions specifically intended
to benefit others rather than oneself
(B) The common property of all beneficial actions
(C) A characteristic of any situation in which two competing parties
benefit mutually from a harm done to a third party
(D) A moral rule that states that one must benefit others at least as much
as one benefits oneself
(E) The sense of well-being one experiences as a result of acting
4. Which of the following is most easily recognized as an expression
of a consequentialist view of the ethics of charity?
(A) It is important to develop all of one’s virtues by practicing them.
Being charitable is a virtue, so one ought to act charitably, at least
(B) We have an absolute duty to practice beneficence. Not giving
to charity violates this duty, and so one ought to give to charity.
(C) According to the Bible, it is important to feed the hungry and heal
the sick. Donating to charity is the most direct means, short of
actually working in relief, of doing so. Hence, we ought to give
to charity.
(D) If everyone donated to charity all the time, it would become
impossible to donate to charity. Thus, we have a duty not to donate
to charity.
(E) It is possible to increase the well-being of many human beings by
giving more to charity. Since we should always try to increase human
well-being, we ought to give more to charity.
5. Which of the following is typically associated with the act or practice
of benefiting someone without or against his or her consent?
(A) Charity
(B) Ethical egoism
(C) Feudalism
(D) Negative duty
(E) Paternalism
50 ❯ McGraw-Hill’s 500 Philosophy Questions
6. The principle of states that it is sometimes morally
permissible to benefit someone without his or her knowledge or consent.
(A) beneficence
(B) accord
(C) helping hands
(D) charity
(E) paternalism
7. The “ought implies can” objection to Singer’s “Famine, Affluence,
and Morality” essentially says that Singer’s view on charity fails because
(A) the notion that we ought to give more to charity than we normally
do implies that the beneficiaries of the charities can become happier
only with our aid
(B) it is wrong to help someone without his or her consent
(C) Singer’s proposed moral standard is higher than we can reasonably
expect people to meet, and so it cannot be the right moral standard
(D) it requires us to donate money even to the point of our own
starvation and/or homelessness
(E) it is not fair that the beneficiaries of charity should benefit from
the hard work of those who donate to charities
8. Which of the following denotes the concept of “going beyond the call
of duty”?
(A) Beneficence
(B) Categorical imperative
(C) Supererogation
(D) Benevolence
(E) Principle of utility
9. The main argument given in Peter Singer’s “Famine, Affluence, and
Morality” relies on what theory of ethics?
(A) Social contract theory
(B) Consequentialism
(C) Feminist ethics
(D) Subjectivism
(E) Emotivism
Applied Ethics ❮ 51
10. Which of the following actions would typically be described as morally
supererogatory rather than morally obligatory?
(A) Keeping a promise
(B) Abusing one’s privileges
(C) Giving all one’s belongings to a poor family
(D) Refraining from murder
(E) Stealing from the wealthy
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