Posted: July 26th, 2022
Please see the attached files for the marking rubric and follow the instructions.
Essay question: Explain neurobiological and psychological factors that contribute to the development and maintenance
of substance use dis. Discuss empirical evidence that demonstrate how both of these factors
contribute to ongoing substance use and relapse
With reference to scientific journal articles (i.e. empirical evidence), explain how a specific drug or
drugs more generally affect the functioning of important neurotransmitter system/s. In to answer
the question you will need to briefly outline what the system/s is/are responsible for and how it is
relevant to substance abuse and addiction. Why are the effects of drugs on this/these system/s
important for our understanding of addiction?
With reference to scientific journal articles, explain how neurobiological changes to this/these system/s
resulting from repeated drug use can lead to a cycle of relapse and addiction (i.e. explain how
repeated drug use can lead to difficulty abstaining and repeated relapse, and how neurobiological
changes contribute to this behavioural pattern).
You also need to refer to psychological theories and/or principles regarding addiction and explain how
these factors contribute to the development of substance use dis and relapse. You must define
these theories/principles and explain why/how they are relevant to the study of addiction and how they
contribute to relapse.
Tip: the question is intentionally broad. You have the option of taking a broad approach or a more
focussed approach to answer the question. It is important to be mindful of the word count (i.e. don’t try
to cover all neurotransmitters systems, all drugs of abuse, or all psychological theories). Good essays
flow and this is difficult to achieve if you try to cover everything
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