Order Harmful Mutations Comparison Discussion

Order Harmful Mutations Comparison Discussion
Order Harmful Mutations Comparison Discussion
81. Compared to beneficial mutations, harmful mutations are
(A) more common
(B) equally common
(C) nonexistent
(D) less common
82. In which of the following situations has evolution most likely
taken place?
(A) An individual produces only taller offspring.
(B) A population produces offspring that are representative of the
gene pool.
(C) A population recombines with an isolated group of distantly
related individuals.
(D) A population’s allele frequencies have changed over time.
Order Harmful Mutations Comparison Discussion
83. After splitting into two isolated populations, genetic changes make
it impossible for an individual from one of the two populations
to reproduce with an individual from the other. Which term most
accurately describes what has happened?
(A) a bottleneck event
(B) differential reproduction
(C) natural selection
(D) speciation
84. A founder group of cats arrives on an isolated island and after
thousands of generations produces several different cat species
that each prey on different kinds and sizes of animals. This is an
example of
(A) evolutionary divergence
(B) coevolution
(C) commensalism
(D) competitive exclusion
44 ❯ 500 AP Environmental Science Questions to Know by Test Day
Slash and burn grasses, weeds, shrubs Pine trees Dense forest
Agriculture Many species
Year 0 Year 200
Figure 2.3
85. The diagram in Figure 2.3 illustrates
(A) primary succession
(B) secondary succession
(C) tertiary succession
(D) pioneer plants
86. Succession is a biological process by which a community successively
changes into another and continues on until a climax community is
reached. Which type of succession is formed when an environment
has been disturbed, such as when a large fire comes through, but the
soil underneath is maintained and still viable to support life?
(A) primary succession
(B) invasive succession
(C) secondary succession
(D) pioneer succession
Order Harmful Mutations Comparison Discussion
87. Lichens are a very important pioneer species that grow on bedrock
and help to break it down into soil over time. They are integral in
providing suitable soil for plants to be able to become re-established
in a disturbed environment. Lichen is a symbiotic relationship
between two organisms: which two organisms are they?
(A) algae and fungi
(B) algae and bacteria
(C) fungi and bacteria
(D) fungi and moss
Living World: Biodiversity ❮ 45
88. Southeast Asian flying foxes are responsible for pollinating most
durian tree flowers and spreading durian seeds. Durian fruit and
durian trees support a vast array of other species, such that a decline
in the flying fox population could have disastrous effects for the
local ecology. As a result, flying foxes can probably be considered
(A) an indicator species
(B) an invasive species
(C) a keystone species
(D) a parasitic species
89. As a series of communities of organisms colonize a new area, trees
become established
(A) early in secondary succession
(B) early in primary succession
(C) late in primary succession
(D) late in secondary succession
90. During primary succession, which of the following organisms often
serve as pioneer species?
(A) lichens
(B) grasses
(C) small herbs
(D) trees
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