Environmental Biology assignment

Posted: September 17th, 2022

Unit 1 Exam Essays Chapters 1-4 (41 points)
Do not delete any part of this document.(I need it all for grading purposes.)
Format:This Word document is already formatted correctly for spacing, width, and font type and font size. Ive placed three returns or blank lines after each question, so you canplace your cursor at the second return and begin to type; this will keep you within the 6-in margins and in proper format.
How much to write:You know how in-depth you must be by looking at the number of points assigned for each question. Use this generalization:58 68 words per point, depending on how concise you are; so a 3-point question requires around 175-200 words to answer fully; a 6-point essay may require up to 400 words.
Essay questions (17 points)
1. Explain what it means to live sustainably on the earths natural income, and explain how its similar to living off the interest of your savings. (1 point)
2. Describe the potential environmental harms and potential environmental benefits of affluence. (2 points)
3.Critical Thinking: The poor who live in the U.S. and the poor who live in some of the poorest nations face different risks and also impact the environment in different ways. What differences can you think of?If you consult sources, please cite them.(2 points)Ill giveextra creditfor extra insightful answers.
4. In your own words, explain the two major steps in the process of evolution: The development of genetic variety through mutations, and Natural selection. (3 points)
5. What is speciation? What is the most common way in which speciation occurs? Describe the two phases of how new species arise. (3 points)
6. Critical thinking: Energy Flow in Food Chains
In this long essay, you will address certain basic scientific concepts essential for you to go forward in environmental biology.
Organization: Weave your answers into one cohesive essay (i.e., paragraphs; no lists). The average reader should be able to understand all terms by reading your essay. If you choose to copy definitions, use quotation marks and cite the page number. However, if youonlygive a list of cut-and-paste definitions, you will not earn much credit. Points will be given for yourunderstandingof how the concepts relate to each other.
Background info: Trophic levels are governed by the interaction of bottom-up forces such as light, nutrients, climate, and very importantly, the amount of producers like plants and phytoplankton. But theyre also governed by top-down forces. Top keystone predators keep lower-trophic animal numbers in balance and help keep prey populations extremely fit. All this is very important to maintaining biodiversity and healthy ecosystems, and to prevent species extinction.
Q:Explain how the following concepts connect to each other toillustrate what happens to matter and energy in a food chain:Net Primary Productivity, Biomass, Pyramid of Energy Flow, and The Second Law of Thermodynamics. Include a full explanation of why food chains rarely have more than four trophic levels, and why top predators are often the first to go extinct when food chains are disrupted. What are the benefits to humans, wildlife, and entire ecosystems when humans eat at lower trophic levels? (6 points)
Short answer(24 points)Note:These are not essays, so you may copy definitions and lists from your text or textbook figures, but you mustcite the page number(s).Older editions may have a different number of factors, so giveedition in your citation.
7. List the 5 basiccausesof environmental problems according to your textbook. (1 point)
8. List the eight natural resources and the ten natural services that make up natural capital according to your textbook figure Natural Capital. (2 points)
9. List the nine ways we are degrading our natural capital according to your textbook figure Natural Capital Degradation. (1 point)
10. Explain (i.e., give more than just definitions) how

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