Buy Causation and Natural Laws Discussion

Buy Causation and Natural Laws Discussion
Buy Causation and Natural Laws Discussion
1. According to the empiricist philosopher David Hume, we never
experience a necessary connection between a cause and an effect, only
a .
(A) weak correlation
(B) representation of a necessary cause
(C) contingent connection
(D) constant conjunction
(E) statistical tendency
2. A cowboy is killed by a volley of arrows. Any one of the arrows could have
killed the cowboy, but no one arrow is the unique cause of the cowboy’s
death. This scenario exemplifies the phenomenon of .
(A) underdetermination
(B) determinism
(C) overdetermination
(D) top-down causation
(E) indeterminacy
3. Which of the following is NOT one of the four types of cause identified
by Aristotle?
(A) Final cause
(B) Efficient cause
(C) Material cause
(D) Substantial cause
(E) Formal cause
4. Which of the following ideas does NOT at all support the notion
of a deterministic universe?
(A) Every event has a cause that is sufficient to bring about that event.
(B) The universe follows natural laws in consistent and predictable ways.
(C) Newtonian physics describes a world in which objects behave
in determined ways.
(D) Human behavior cannot be explained by way of sufficient causes.
(E) True randomness cannot exist.
104 ❯ McGraw-Hill’s 500 Philosophy Questions
Buy Causation and Natural Laws Discussion
4. Pierre-Simon Laplace theorized in the early 19th century that a sufficiently
vast intellect would have the ability to precisely predict future states of
the universe on the basis of the present state and the laws of nature.
This hypothetical mind has come to be known as .
(A) the evil genius
(B) Laplace’s demon
(C) Pascal’s wager
(D) the homunculus
(E) Occam’s razor
5. If some event x always brings about another event y, even though other
events could bring about y as well, then x is said to be a
cause of y.
(A) necessary
(B) formal
(C) necessary and sufficient
(D) sufficient
(E) random
6. Causal conditional refers to any statement of the form .
(A) absent event x, event y does not happen (as a result of x)
(B) events x and y overdetermine event z
(C) event x is correlated with event y
(D) if event y happens, then it does not happen as a result of event x
(E) if event x happens, then event y happens (as a result of x)
7. The basic idea behind theories of causation is that
statements of cause and effect can best be understood when put
in the form “If x had not occurred, y would not have occurred.”
(A) metaphysical
(B) counterfactual
(C) Humean
(D) natural
(E) antirealist
8. According to occasionalism, all events .
(A) actually happen simultaneously
(B) are caused by God
(C) have sufficient causes
(D) have effects
(E) are predetermined
Metaphysics ❮ 105
9. Which of the following is NOT a metaphysical view about the laws
of nature?
(A) The universalism view
(B) The antirealist view
(C) The laws-are-necessarily-true view
(D) The antireductionist view
(E) The quantum indeterminacy view
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