3D Echocardiography for Valvular Heart Disease
3D Echocardiography for Valvular Heart Disease
1. Contemporary 3D echocardiography systems allow for
optimized real-time imaging by acquisition of a pyramidal
3D dataset that is sized approximately
A. 60° × 30°
B. 90° × 90°
C. 30° × 30°
D. 45° × 90°
2. Which of the following features of real-time 3D echocardiography compared to standard 2D echocardiography is
A. Immediate display of volumetric images
B. Enhanced understanding of anatomical relationships
C. Reduced spatial resolution
D. Enhanced accuracy of LVEF quantitation
E. Improved temporal resolution
3. 3D echocardiography has been validated and should be
clinically incorporated in each of the following clinical
A. Evaluation of cardiac LV volumes and systolic function
B. Assessment of RV volume and function
C. Evaluation of left atrial size
D. Volumetric evaluation of regurgitant lesions and shunts
E. Presentation of realistic views of heart valves
4. A 54-year-old male with a history of ischemic
cardiomyopathy presents with atrial brillation and rapid
ventricular response. He requires a TEE for evaluation
prior to cardioversion. Which of the 3DE acquisition
modes will result in images with a high likelihood of
A. Real-time 3DE imaging
B. Live 3D zoom mode
C. Live 3D wide angle/full volume
D. ECG-triggered multiple-beat 3DE imaging
5. Which of the following steps to reduce the demonstrated
artifact encountered during acquisition of this widevolume 3DE image is least likely to be corrective
(Fig. 48.1 and Video 48.1)?
SECTION XII NEWER APPLICATIONS
3D Echocardiography for
Valvular Heart Disease
Gabriel Vorobiof and Andre Babak Akhondi
Figure 48.1 A,B: Three-dimensional wide-volume acquisitions
demonstrating the aortic valve AV, left (LA) and right atria (RA), and
pulmonary artery (PA).
(c) 2015 Wolters Kluwer. All Rights Reserved.
410 Section XII Newer Applications
A. It is impossible to eliminate gating artifacts due to
B. Suspend respiration and reacquire image.
C. Increase the line density to increase the temporal
D. Increase the gain since the major artifact is image
E. Display in a different reference plane that is parallel to
the sweep plane as this is a display artifact and not an
6. Which of the following structures has been most studied
with real-time 3D echocardiography?
A. Right ventricle
B. Left ventricle
C. Right atrium
D. Left atrium
7. How do 3D echocardiographic measures of left ventricular volumes, ejection fraction, and mass perform when
compared to cardiac MRI?
A. 3DE underestimates LV volumes, EF, and mass.
B. 3DE overestimates LV volumes, EF, and mass.
C. 3DE shows a high-degree correlation for LV volumes,
EF, and mass.
D. 3DE underestimates LV volume but is accurate for
LVEF and mass.
E. 3DE overestimates LV volumes and LVEF and is
accurate for LV mass.
8. A 73-year-old male who presents with chest pain was found
to have ST elevations in the inferior leads, with subsequent
right ventricular heart failure. Which of the imaging modalities has the greatest interstudy reproducibility regarding
the assessment of right ventricular systolic function?
A. 3D echocardiography
B. 2D echocardiography
C. Cardiac MRI
D. Cardiac CT
E. 2D with contrast, 3DE, and cardiac MRI are equally
9. What are the two most critical anatomic landmarks used
in 3D echocardiography to determine an accurate left
ventricular (LV) ejection fraction and volume?
A. Left ventricle trabeculae and papillary muscles
B. Mitral annulus and aortic annulus
C. Interventricular septum and left ventricular apex
D. Mitral annulus and left ventricular apex
E. RV insertion points
10. Which of the following statements is true regarding 3D
transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in comparison
to 2D TEE in the assessment of mitral stenosis?
A. The optimal timing of the cardiac cycle to measure
planimetry for mitral stenosis in 3D TEE is mid-systole.
B. 2D TEE tends to overestimate mitral valve area
(MVA) in comparison to 3D TEE.
C. Mitral valve commissural fusion is overestimated with
D. 3D TEE provides limited information on the degree of
E. Reproducibility of 2DE measurements of mitral valve
area is higher than with 3DE.
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